Literature Courses and the Common Core

Will the Common Core State Standards push schools to emphasize “informational” over literary text, even in English class? Many educators worry that they will. The CCSS document states that, by grade 12, the proportion of informational to literary text in the curriculum should be 70 to 30—just like the ratio in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework. Granted, this ratio applies to the entire curriculum, not specifically to English Language Arts. Yet English teachers in many districts have been told to include more “informational text” in their courses.

Carol Jago’s piece “What English Classes Should Look Like in the Common Core Era” (The Answer Sheet, Washington Post, January 10, 2013) offers a refreshing view of the matter. She begins by clarifying this matter of “informational text.” No, English teachers are not supposed to stop teaching poetry, drama, or fiction. Instead, they should teach more of all of this, as well as literary nonfiction; students should get used to reading a lot. They should read attentively at home, so that they can take part in lively class discussion:

To reverse this trend [toward heavy entertainment media use in place of reading–DS] we need to make English classrooms vibrant places where compelling conversations about great works of literature take place every day. They need to be spaces where anyone who didn’t do the homework reading feels left out. … I’m not talking about force-feeding students but rather inviting them to partake of the richest fare literature has to offer. One thing I know for sure. The teenagers I taught were always hungry.

In addition, according to Jago, students should read history books and write research papers for history class. They should not only become adept at reading different kinds of texts, but also come to understand why these texts are worth reading.

I applaud these ideas, yet I have some qualms as well. First, if the point is to introduce students to compelling literature, then shouldn’t curriculum and courses take precedence over standards? A curriculum specifies the actual literature; standards do not. A curriculum need not be uniform across schools, districts, and states—but it holds more meaning and coherence than generic standards do.

One standard reads: “Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.” That is fine and well—but it matters a great deal what the text is. Ambiguities and uncertainties in Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge are quite different from those in James Merrill’s “Lost in Translation,” yet here they are treated as one and the same. A student’s “growth” in relation to this standard could be uneven, yet he might be learning a great deal.

Second, the standards bring a spate of new assessments that we have not yet seen or tried. What happens if the tests conflict with good curricula? Will teachers come under pressure to defer to the tests? Will the technology companies start hawking software that supposedly helps students boost their scores? Will teachers be expected to use it? Teachers are understantably anxious about the new assessments; much will ride on them, yet we do not know to what degree they will reflect the contents of a literature or history course. The sample test items available for scrutiny (for example, a “task” regarding Ovid’s “Daedalus and Icarus,” from his Metamorphoses) offer little if any assurance; the Ovid passage is full of meaning and suggestion, yet the multiple-choice question does it poor justice.

Third, how will schools foster the sort of environment that Jago envisions (and that I support), where students come to class eager to discuss the texts? Many students will do this right away. Others will resist at first but will eventually come around. Still others will resist for a long time—maybe all the way through school. Jago suggests that the students who come to class unprepared, or unwilling to participate, will recognize that they have excluded themselves from something exciting. This is possible when the course has integrity: when the works selected for the course are inherently compelling and combine in an interesting way, when the teacher takes students into these works with verve and care, and when neither the standards nor the assessments distract from the  daily practice of delving into the texts. Students must care about more than their grade and test score; they must take interest in what they are learning, or at least glimpse something of importance in it.

In essence, Jago is talking about cultivating an intellectual environment. This comes when the teachers’ and students’ attention is not continually deflected toward peripheral things. It matters much more what John Stuart Mill says about the danger of squelching unpopular views, than how much On Liberty counts toward the “informational text” ratio, or even (after a certain point) the “growth” that students supposedly show or do not show on a test of reading skills. Of course students should be learning things that are testable (as well as things that are not), but will these tests capture what they have learned in a good class? If not, will we all be expected to set aside our better judgment and bow to the test?

Standards, too, can distract when held up too high. What standard can hold a candle to the following passage from Mill? What standard approximates a discussion of it?

But it is not the minds of heretics that are deteriorated most, by the ban placed on all inquiry which does not end in the orthodox conclusions. The greatest harm done is to those who are not heretics, and whose mental development is cramped, and their reason cowed, by the fear of heresy. Who can compute what the world loses in the multitude of promising intellects combined with timid characters, who dare not follow out any bold, vigorous, independent train of thought, lest it should land them in something which would admit of being considered irreligious or immoral?

The answer: none. Standards can serve as reminders and gauges; they can help us see areas of excess or deficiency. But the substance of the courses must come first; students should be reading a given work not because it meets grade-band complexity criteria, not because it is “informational text,” not (primarily) because the reading of it will help them address standards X, Y, and Z, but because it is worth reading and pondering, and because this reading and pondering will help them think on their own. Any standards, any tests should be subordinate to this principle; the Common Core can help direct our efforts but is not our ultimate guide.

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3 Comments

  1. I know we are talking about reading here (and mostly English and Social Studies classes), but I wish people would do the math.

    Look at the literary reading that we expect a student to do in a single year. A 12th grade student could EASILY be expected to read over 2000 pages a year.

    * Perhaps one novel or memoir a month? That’s 250-300 pages on average. 8-10 months? Do the math.

    * Even with an average of 10 pages of reading homework a night — which would be VERY LOW average, even if average in all the nights with no reading homework — you get…let’s do the math…180 school days * 10 pages/day = 1800 pages.

    * Advanced students (i.e. honors, AP) should easily double or triple that.

    But let’s say 2000 pages. And let’s think about that 70/30 split. Again, if we do the math we get 4666 pages of informational text.

    Is 4500+ pages of reading/year a reasonable expectation, across the rest of a student’s coursework? Is 9000-14000 reasonable for advanced students?

    Do backers of the 70/30 have some different unit of measure in mind? Perhaps hours? Perhaps for every hour of literary reading, students should do 2.3 hours of just informational READING, in addition to their problem sets, projects and all the rest of their work. Is that a reasonable expectation?

    I find it hard to see how the 70/30 breakdown would actually work, unless English teachers assign informational reading in place of some literary reading. But I’m not sure how that is supposed to work in AP Literature or American Lit classes.

    I know it is a lot to ask when we are talking about reading, but can’t some people please do the math?

    Reply
    • You make a good point. It isn’t clear what this ratio is supposed to mean. Does it refer to pages? Words? Titles? Hours?

      I don’t think such a ratio is necessary in the first place; it makes much more sense to construct good courses across the curriculum.

      Yes, students should read primary and secondary sources in history class. Yes, there should be some literary nonfiction in literature class. Science classes should include some reading of past and current scientific writing (including ancient writings, which can be fascinating). Students should also learn how to detect “junk science” (as there is so much of it).

      I am not at all sure that students should have to read widely in other subjects, such as math and music. It is good for students to work with languages that are not primarily verbal. Learning to read a score or work through a complex algebraic proof is an important accomplishment. Such reading may be brief in terms of pages but highly complex in terms of content.

      In high school, I probably read about 75 percent literature (since I was taking Latin, Greek, and French in addition to English, and learned Russian during our year in Moscow). In history class, I read not only the textbook, but Hofstadter and Boorstin; we all analyzed Supreme Court cases, read diaries and letters, and more. In math class, I read nothing beyond the textbook, and that was fine; the same is true for science. (I did read some books on mathematical and scientific topics on my own.) In retrospect, I think the teachers took great care to give us a variety of readings–but they didn’t adhere to any formula.

      Reply
  2. Brian Patrick

     /  December 11, 2013

    “Standards can serve as reminders and gauges; they can help us see areas of excess or deficiency. But the substance of the courses must come first; students should be reading a given work not because it meets grade-band complexity criteria, not because it is “informational text,” not (primarily) because the reading of it will help them address standards X, Y, and Z, but because it is worth reading and pondering, and because this reading and pondering will help them think on their own. Any standards, any tests should be subordinate to this principle; the Common Core can help direct our efforts but is not our ultimate guide.”

    Thank you for the above thought.

    Reply

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